Alveolar macrophages:

  • Source of fever in atelectasis


  • 2 membranes, TCA cycle in inner matrix


  • Has 2 membranes, the outer membrane continuous with Rough ER.


  • Inside the nucleus; has no membrane; ribosomes are made here.

Rough ER:

  • Makes protein for export, (increased in pancreatic acinar cells)

Smooth ER:

  • For cytoplasmic lipid/steroid synthesis, detoxify drugs (increased in liver and adrenal cortex)

Plasma membrane:

  • Is 60% protein, 40% lipids
  • Cholesterol increases membrane fluidity

Malignant Hyperthermia:

  • Calcium is released from sarcoplasmic reticulum causing muscle excitation-contraction syndrome.
  • Signs: Fever, tachycardia, rigidity, acidosis, hyperkalemia.
  • First sign is high end tidal CO2
  • Tx: Dantrolene, inhibits calcium release and decouples excitation complex, cooling blankets, HCO3, glucose, supportive care.


  • Diaphragm is 1st muscle to recover
  • Neck and face muscles are last


  • No basement membrane, loose cell-to-cell jxn
  • Not present in muscle, bone, tendon, brain

Cholesterol formation:

  • Rate limiting step (in liver, steroid precursor) = HMG CoA Reductase

Steroid hormones:

  • Go to nucleus after binding in cytoplasm of target cell.

Kreb's cycle:

  • 36 ATP from 1 glucose (eukaryote cells) (38 in prokaryote cells)
  • Anaerobic glycolysis = 2 ATP and lactate

Cyt p450:

  • Activity (ACT UP): Anticonvulsants, Coumadin, and Theophylline
  • Activity (DIM C): Disulfiram, INH, MAO-I, Cimetidine.

Macula Densa:

  • Senses low Na/Cl, produces Renin which converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II in the lungs by the A.C.E.
  • ATII is a (potent) vasoconstrictor and aldosterone, which keeps Na, loses K/H in urine.

Renal osteodystrophy:

  • Kidney loses Ca, keeps PO4; decrease vit D 1-hydroxylation; all leads to secondary HPT

Cori Cycle:

  • From muscle glucose to lactate in liver lactate to glucose
  • Intermediate product in liver and muscle: Pyruvate

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